INdRA

Interior Natural Desert Reclamation and Acclimatization project

Geo-engineering Region by Region

      Redefining Acts Of God

 

 

geo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management,
 

INdRA Technologies

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Transit:

The transit of water from the ocean to higher elevations and over vast distances, in a secure,  in-expensive, effective way is our challenge.  Many arid regions are separated from humid regions by natural boundaries, which include mountains, surface elevations, sub-surface geological impediments and vast expanses of land. 

Transit of brackish water through freshwater areas without damage to local ecology is also a challenge, especially during significant weather events like floods, seasonal rains, or earthquakes.  Fortunately many of these problems have been adequately addressed with current oil and gas pipeline methods and techniques.

The basic idea employs a dual channel system, and a suitable saltwater or freshwater riparian zones, that will effectively manage evaporation. Maximizing evaporation when additional regional humidity is required, and minimizing evaporation when appropriate. [See evaporation in the next section]  The issues of channel design are construction, long-term maintenance, operation, and management.  

The design objective of evaporation management presents additional challenges for the transit system.  Steep ascents of significant volumes of water will require constant positive operating pressures.   A system of pumps and low pressure systems will be required to achieve the required pressures. These active procedures will be combined with a series of stepped reservoirs and salt marshes.

Natural channels will be employed where possible, however in most areas massive construction projects will have to be undertaken.  Not unlike the aqueducts of ancient Rome, these systems will require many public sacrifices in land and funds. Even where circumstances allow the use of natural channels, they will have to altered in size, flow rates and possibly even direction of flow.

Figure 1.a : Geological isolation due to plate tectonics.geo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management,

 

Figure 1: Freshwater Riparian zone

geo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management,

 

Evaporation:

To affect significant modifications to local humidity will require water flows and various evaporation methodologies.   The transit system will as a feature of its design expose large amounts of water to the atmosphere.   Routes will be selected to optimize the affects of sunshine as an evaporation agent.  Additionally the transit method will incorporate a variety of methods to maximize the surface area exposed to both sunshine and atmospheric phenomena such as wind or heat sources.  These methods for increasing evaporation, will include;

  1. Baffles  (the rapids effect)
  2. Intervallic  atomizers
  3. Advective energy sources (i.e. pumps and gravity feeds)
  4. Heat: Active and passive [solar] heating systems
  5. Enhanced surface areas

 

To minimize evaporation, these methods will be applied;

  1. Minimize surface area
  2. Cooling towers
  3. Flow routing

See Figure 3: for standard evaporation rates.

Figure3: 1998 Evaporation from Reservoirs, Natural Lakes & Ponds 

 

Hydrologic

Region

Evaporation in Acre-Feet

Reservoirs

Large Natural

Lakes

Small Natural

Lakes & Ponds

Totals

North Coast

167,490

 

38,940

206,430

San Francisco Bay

104,421

 

10,110

114,531

Central Coast

74,178

 

10,030

84,208

South Coast

149,126

 

18,470

167,596

Sacramento River

700,677

(3)337,000

67,650

1,105,327

San Joaquin River

419,868

 

77,320

497,188

Tulare Lake

232,863

 

39,310

272,173

North Lahontan

(1)231,544

281,000

13,600

526,144

South Lahontan

45,113

135,000

27,380

207,493

Colorado River

(2)217,520

1,549,000

6,450

1,772,970

TOTAL

2,342,800

2,302,000

309,260

4,954,060

 Notes:  (1)—Based on surface area, about 56,000 acre-feet of evaporation on LakeTahoe &  
                     Topaz Lake is in Nevada.
(2)—Several reservoirs are on the Colorado River, so about 97,500 acre-feet of this
.       evaporation is Arizona
             (3)---Based on surface area, about 84,000 acre-feet of evaporation on Goose Lake is in
                     Oregon..

 

 

 

Figure 2: Evaporation/transit channels

geo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management,

 

Desalination

The primary method of removing salt from brackish water wgeo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management, ill be via natural and enhanced evaporation.   As water is transited in open channels various methods, described above will be used to increase the brackishness of the flowing water.

MSF desalination plants will be strategically located through out the channel network.  Brackish water will be converted to fresher water quite effectively using multi-stage flash technology because the levels of salinity will be significantly increased during open evaporation transit.

Mechanical desalination processes are energy intensive, so these plants will be located near the natural power sources for the network which are interchanges, and other high traffic areas.   Where this is not feasible other power generation methods will be applied, especially GFG [trick dams], solar, and hydropower.

However, the secondary method of desalination will be through the creation of salt marshes wherein natural riparian processes will remove salt from brackish water.  With the added benefit of providing enhanced habitats for various bird and salt water creatures.

 

Figure 4: MSF Desalination plant re-circulation device

One of the 20 vertical mixed-flow brine re-circulation pumps. In all, over 100 pumps of varying designs and sizes were used in the plant.

 

Power:

The primary power requirements involve the movement of water up grades.  However, secondary requirements will be for system maintenance and desalination operations. A combination of clean technology power sources can be utilized, for example solar or wind power can be employed in appropriate areas.  The primary technological underpinning of the this scheme is gravitational power.

Gravitational power will be tapped via roadways adjacent to pumping stations where feasible.  In the early stages explicit methods will be used, in the form

PEC technology: overview

PEC technology converts the common movement of vehicles, pedestrians, or animals into electrical power.

A simple calculation illustrates the value of common movement as a power source.   Every time 25 people take the 300 steps necessary to pass the front of Macys, in New York, at an average weight of 150 lbs. These few pedestrians will generate over 1,000,000 lbs. of pressure on the walkway.

A herd of 100 cows, weighing 1400 lbs. each.  Would generate 14,000,000 lbs. of pressure in a 100 step walk from a feeding station to a milking station.

On a busy roadway every 100 cars that run over a manhole cover, considering a 2,000 lb. car.  Will generate 50,000 lbs. of pressure, on the surface and supporting structures.

The effects of this pressure can be seen in sidewalk and roadway maintenance requirements.

A fluid based PEC can translate that 1,000,00 lbs. of pressure into a equal amount of fluid pressure.  This type of fluid pressure is converted to electrical energy in traditional hydropower, and steam power technologies.  The PEC pressurized fluid is then converted into electric power, by a nearby generator.

Mechanical PECs can translate that same 1,000,00 lbs. of pressure into a stream of DC voltage, using hydro-electric generation. Voltage sufficient for exterior lighting, signs, and substantial excess power to the local grid.

 

 

GFG technology overview:

Abstract:

A Trick Dam (T-Dam) is a scaleable buoyancy engine which can rotate a shaft, or compress a surface.    T-Dam applications range from power generation to marine engines.   T-Dam power generation applications are on a continuum from battery replacements, to Giga-watt municipal systems.  T-Dams can be noisy, but have no recognized negative environmental impacts.

Background: T-Dam vs conventional hydro-electric dam

In a traditional hydro-electric dam, water is the medium, but gravity is the primary source of potential energy. Gravity is also the source of potential energy in free-flotation.   Negative buoyancy powers a traditional hydro-electric dam.  Positive buoyancy powers a T-Dam. It follow then that T-Dams, operate on the same principle as a conventional  dam.  i.e.:Fluid is employed as a transport medium, facilitating conversion of  gravitational potential energy to mechanical energy.

Overview & Analysis:

The essence of the T-Dam method, is to circulate a two-state rotor in an elliptical pattern using flotation to raise the rotor, and then harvesting energy by dropping the same rotor.

A brief summary of a simple T-Dam design; a unit comprised of at least two channels, tightly linked at the top, and at the bottom with small near fluid-tight revolving paddle wheels (called gateways).  One of the channels is filled with fluid, (i.e. water, or some other more dense liquid), and the other is as empty as possible (ideal would be a complete vacuum). The channels can simply be formed from wide pipes, as simple as drain pipes, although a wider channel can dramatically increase the power generating potential of the T-Dam.

Circulating through these channels are multiple ball shaped devices, acting as rotors.  These rotors are moved up or down, these channels, using gravity alone.  Flotation, and free-fall are the transport methods.   Energy is harvested from the system by capturing the force of these rotors as they fall down the empty channel.   In large scale implementations each rotor may weigh over a ton, thereby generating significant power.

With advanced designs, and wide spread acceptance, trick dams could replace the bulk of fossil fuels within our lifetimes.   While with research advances, in nano-technology, T-Dams, will become increasingly effective, and powerful.   

We envision a T-Dam world, where energy is essentially as free as fire or fertility.  T-Dam designs can be applied to a both rivers, and lakes.  Please examine the applications for jungle rivers, and still ponds.  The moving river application can be constructed from local materials, and immediately applied to water management for irrigation and  consumption.

_ _ _ _

Before we talk about the technology in more detail;  Please click here to review our insights on gravity as a source of power.  

 

Figure 5: PEC - Traffic power harvesting method

geo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management,

 

Figure 6: Trick dam GFG method

geo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management,